P1- How can you check a battery's performance?

Different usage applications will use different methods for evaluating a battery’s performance. Using a 20 hour rate or the 10 hour rate, you can use 0.05CA or 0.1CA to discharge the battery until the battery reaches a terminal voltage of 10.25 volts. You can then calculate the amp hours to see if the battery fits the specifications or not. For a 5 minutes rate, such as the HC1221W, you can use a 21 watts/cell discharge till the terminal voltage reaches a terminal voltage of 9.6 volts and then measure the discharge time to see if it meets the final specifications or not

P2- What do overcharging and over discharging mean?

1 – Batteries for UPS or emergency lighting systems are always in charging condition. It is necessary to buy higher quality batteries to avoid overcharging damage. Swelling batteries are usually happened due to overcharging and the problem could be the charging equipment system. In general, if charging current does not reduce for a long period, batteries will lack of water and swell due to overload. However, other reasons like bad quality and internal components corroding too fast will also cause the battery charging connection defectively. And charging batteries overly result in overcharging problem simultaneously.
2 – Batteries for UPS or emergency light systems will result in overdischarging problem due to overloaded if the power is shut off or batteries not being charged for a long period.
3 – Overcharging of automobile battery: First, check the charging voltage and current of Regulator. If the standard voltage is 14.4V and the measure voltage is greater than 15V, it indicates that batteries are getting overcharging easily
*Conditions of overcharging condition are :
(1)Abnormally high electrolyte Specific Gravity
(2)Electrolyte turbidity
(3)Plate corrosion
(4)Water reduces much faster than before
*Condition of over-discharging is:
Abnormally low electrolyte Specific Gravity

P3-When charging battery with overcurrent, what are the effects?

When charging a battery with overcurrent, the charging time will be shortened. However, a battery will be heated easily under overcurrent and gases will be generated inside to cause the danger of thermal runaway. Therefore, the maximum charging current is 0.3CA.

P4-self-discharge will reduce a battery's performance gradually. What is the best storage environment to minimize self-discharge? How can a battery be reverted to normal performance?

A battery will drop its performance during the storage period automatically; this phenomenon is denoted at “self-discharge.” This state of “self-discharge” cannot be avoided.

We suggest recharging batteries during a storage period using the guidelines outlined below.

Normally you may not get 100% performance back after storage during the first recharge. That means those batteries may need more than one recharge cycle. Please discharge then recharge for 3 cycles.

Qualification of use and storage

Q1-What are the cautions for connecting batteries in parallel or in series?

(1)Do not use new and old (over one month after manufacture) batteries together.
(2)Do not connect batteries of different brands, different capacity, and different voltage in series.
(3)Do not charge and discharge batteries in parallel if the voltage difference inside each loop is too large.

Q2-What is the definition of ``cycle use`` and ``standby use”?

“Cycle Use” – direct power source:It can provide the power supply to power tools, portable electronic products. It can also be used for cycling charging and discharging usage such as electronics motorbike or vacuum cleaner.”Standby Use” – back up power: Mainly used for emergency power to avoid future damage that may be caused by a sudden power outage.

Q3-Why is the charging voltage for ``cycle use`` higher that the voltage used for ``standby use”?

Cycle use is a direct power source. The charging time can not be too long for a user. The higher charging voltage can provide longer maximum charging current during the charging period. (A full charge should be Charging AH / Discharging AH = 110% ~ 120%.)

Q4-Why ``zero voltage`` might happen?

Zero voltage means there is a broken circuit. There could be several reasons for a zero voltage state.
1. There could be a broken electrode column
2. Welding defects of the partition
3. Welding defects of the terminal

Q5-What is ``over-discharge`` and what is it's effect on a battery?

If the final voltage is lower than the standard final voltage, we can say the battery is “over-discharged.” The state will affect the battery’s quality very seriously.
1. The “over discharge” state will cause overuse of active material. The composition of the battery will be changed by the over discharge. There will be degradation of the plate.
2. It may bring out too much or large amounts of lead sulfate (PbSO4) which could cause damage to the plate structure. A recharge may not bring the full performance of the battery back.
3. Recharging after over discharging may lead to short failures.


When the ambient temperature is over 25°C, battery life will reduce by 50% for every 10°C higher. As the life and capacity of SLA batteries are rated at 25°C, ambient temperature change will significantly affect SLA battery life


G1-If a battery fails, what will be the indications?

Lower performance
Low voltage
Cannot charge/recharge
Swelled container
Acid corrosion

G2-How to choose a proper battery?

(1) Get the same specification battery as the original one by looking up its Voltage, Amps and dimension.
(2) Maintenance free battery is a better choice for vehicles. Technicians at motorcycle store or motor maintenance factory should install it.
(3) Ensure that battery connections are clean, tight and free of corrosion

G3-How can the conversion be made between ``watts (W)`` and ``amp hours (Ah)``?

W=I x V = 4I (15 minute rate) = 2CV = 2V
(Ex. HC1217W = 17/4 = 4.25Ah)

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